Questions / Queries about Hajj and Pilgrimage

Add haji/hajah to name

Q: Is one obliged to add haji/hajah to one's name after performing the Hajj or Badal Hajj?

A: The addition of Haji/Hajah to one's name has absolutely no basis in Islam. Therefore, there is no need to change one's name on one's identity card, for example. This is especially so when the act might result in the feeling of Riya'. 

The most important thing about performing Hajj is to pray for Allah's acceptance of that particular act or ibadah. The act of adding haji/hajah to the name is not a priority at all. Moreover, our Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h. never encouraged such an act. The same goes for when a family member has performed Badal Hajj for the deceased. What we can do is to pray that the rewards of the Hajj will reach the deceased, and not to busy oneself with the issue of adding on to the name of the deceased, which has no benefit whatsoever.

Having a sense of pride when one has performed a great ibadah such as the Hajj is not something that Islam endorses. Instead, it is best that one makes an effort to interpret the meaning and reason behind the command to perform the ritual itself.

In this case, the Hajj contains many positive attributes that one can appreciatesuch as inclusiveness, diligence in performing the ritual and also the feeling of brotherhood and unity when muslims from all over the world gather in one place to perform the Hajj.

These attributes can be easily applied to one’s daily life. Hopefully, with such an effort, muslims will be able to appreciate both the essence and the rituals of Islam and not stressing upon one aspect only and neglecting the other.

After nullification of Dam

Q: If the payment of Dam due to tamattu' or qiran is nullified because one has returned to Miqat, how does one continue from there?

A: Trying to continue one's Hajj by returning to the miqat may not be a wise decision. This is because Allah has permitted us to perform the Hajj in the many ways shown to us by our Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h. Therefore it is up to the person whether to choose the easier option or the more difficult one. The option to pay the Dam depends on how one chooses to perform his/her Hajj.

It is imperative that one acknowledges that the payment of Dam is not something that renders Hajj imperfect. It instead brings out a more holistic effect as it not only affects the individual performing the act itself but also those on the receiving end. Hence, one may be able to appreciate the true meaning of Islam in which it brings the message of moral virtues and values which will in turn shape good character.

And hopefully with that, one will appreciate the true essence and spirit for which the practice was instituted.

It would also be advisable to refer directly to the syeikhs who are in charge as they are more experienced in such matters.

Hajj obligation on women

Q: Is Haj obligatory for women?

A: Performing Haj is the fifth pillar of Islam. It is obligatory upon all Muslims, men and women, who have attained puberty and has the means to perform it. Rasulullah s.a.w never once singled out that Haj is only obligatory upon Muslim men only

Hajj of husband who did not pay nafkah

Q: Is the Hajj of a husband who does not give nafkah to his wife and children valid?

A: Giving nafkah to one’s wife and children is compulsory (wajib). If a person performs the Hajj but does not give nafkah to his wife and children, the Hajj is considered valid with regards to the Law of Islamic Jurisprudence as validity depends on whether or not all the conditions have been fulfilled. However, he will be in a state of sin by neglecting his responsibility as a husband.

One must be reminded of the fact that Islam is beyond rituals and practices. Hence, if a person performs many ibadah or Islamic practices but fails to fulfil his responsibility to his family, he has therefore failed to embrace the true essence and meaning of Islam. Hence, one must appreciate both aspects of Islam, both the ritualistic nature of Islam and its essence and to not stress only on one aspect and neglecting the other.

Hajj on behalf of deceased

Q: Is a family member obliged to perform Hajj for the deceased and whose money should cover the expenses?

A: There are 5 matters that should be fulfilled with regards to a deceased Muslim's property. Firstly, to settle the burial of the body and all matters related to it. Secondly, to settle claim debts owed to the deceased. Thirdly, to settle all outstanding debts. Fourthly, to fulfil the deceased's will and finally, to divide the remaining property according to faraid to the rightful heirs.

Therefore, if the deceased has not performed the Hajj during his lifetime even though he/she can afford to do so, it is obligatory that it be performed on his/her behalf, with the condition that the one performing it has performed the Hajj before.

There's a hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim, "A woman from Khas'am asked the Rasululah s.a.w if she could perform the Hajj on behalf of her father who was unable to perform it due to his old age and the Rasulullah answered: "Yes."

Another Hadith explained how the Rasulullah s.a.w permitted a woman to perform Hajj on behalf of her mother who had made nazar that she would perform the Hajj but had passed away before being able to do so.

In relation to that, a family member may use a portion of the deceased's property to cover the Hajj expenses which will be performed on the deceased's behalf as the Hajj, if not performed during one's lifetime, is considered one's debt to Allah.

Nullifying payment of Dam

Q: In what situation is a person who performs tamattu’ or qiran hajj not obliged to pay the Dam?

A: According to the consensus of the ulama, the payment of Dam is obligatory in the case of tamattu’ and qiran. This is based on on Al-Baqarah:196; “...and whosoever performs the 'Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Al-Qirân), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford…”

According to the Hanafi school, the payment of Dam in the case of tamattu’ or qiran is considered to be done out of gratitude. Hence, those who pay the Dam can both consume the meat and give it away. According to the Syafii school, Dam is considered as a form of punishment. Hence, one cannot consume it.

The Hanafi school also says that if a pilgrim who is in a state of ihram qiran travels to Arafah without going to Makkah first, he/she is considered to have nullified the umrah by performing the wukuf. In this case, the payment of Dam for qiran is also nullified. However, another payment of Dam applies with the nullification of one’s umrah and the pilgrim paying it cannot consume the meat. He/she must also repay (qadha’) the umrah itself in accordance to the ruling where if one has begun to perform it, one is then obliged to finish it or replace it. 

According to the Syafii school, the payment of Dam for tamattu’ or qiran is nullified when the pilgrim returns to miqat to perform the ihram.

However, returning to miqat just to perform the ihram is not something encouraged as it may trouble the person performing it. Every practice instituted by Islam has its own wisdom and significances. Allah s.w.t has made the Hajj flexible in which one pays Dam when performing Hajj tamattu’ or qiran without having to return to miqat for example, so it is best that we accept what He has given us as He knows best.

One of the significances of paying Dam is the effect of a charitable act which is more holistic as it effects not just the individual performing it but also those in the receiving end. Hence, one may be able to appreciate the true meaning of Islam in which it brings the message of moral virtues and values which will in turn shape good character,

And hopefully with that, one will appreciate the true essence and spirit for which the practice was instituted.

Tamattu'/Qiran renders Hajj imperfect

Q: Does having to pay the Dam due to Hajj tamattu' or Qiran make one's Hajj imperfect?

A: Having to pay the Dam does not render one's Hajj to be imperfect or damage it at all. Paying the Dam is considered a complete replacement and is Allah's way of teaching his servants to give to the poor and needy in the form of meat.

One of the significances of paying Dam is the effect of a charitable act which is more holistic as it effects not just the individual performing it but also those in the receiving end. Hence, one may be able to appreciate the true meaning of Islam in which it brings the message of moral virtues and values which will in turn shape good character.

And hopefully with that, one will appreciate the true essence and spirit for which the practice was instituted.

Soalan-soalan mengenai Haji

Gugur pembayaran dam

S: Dalam keadaan apakah seseorang yang mengerjakan haji tamattu’ tidak dikenakan Dam?

J: Ulama bersepakat bahawa seseorang yang mengerjakan ibadah secara tamattu’ dan qiran wajib membayar dam. Ini berdasarkan firman Allah di dalam surah al-Baqarah ayat 196 yang bermaksud:

“…maka sesiapa yang mahu menikmati kemudahan dengan mengerjakan umrah, (dan terus menikmati kemudahan itu) hingga masa (mengerjakannya) ibadah haji bolehlah dia melakukannya kemudian wajiblah dia menyembelih dam  yang mudah didapati…”

Dam kerana mengerjakan ibadah qiran atau tamattu’ ini, mengikut ulama Hanafi merupakan dam kerana kesyukuran. Oleh itu, mereka yang membayar dam ini harus sama memakannya. Mengikut pendapat ulama’ Syafi’i pula, kedua mereka ini tidak harus memakan damnya itu. 

Mengikut pendapat ulama Hanafi, jika sekiranya orang yang berihram qiran ini terus ke Arafah tanpa ke Makkah terlebih dahulu, maka dia dianggap telah membatalkan umrahnya dengan mengerjakan  wukuf. Orang ini tidak perlu membayar dam kerana mengerjakan qiran, tetapi dia wajib membayar dam kerana membatalkan umrahnya. Ini ialah kerana dam menampung ibadah yang dibatalkan dan dia tidak harus memakannya.

Dia juga wajib mengqada umrah berkenaan kerana apabila telah memulakannya bererti dia telah mewajibkannya untuk dirinya. Apabila yang wajib ini tidak ditunaikannya, maka wajiblah dia mengqada dan menggantikannya.  

Mengikut ulama Syafi’i, kewajipan membayar dam kerana qiran dan tamattu’ ini gugur sekiranya seorang itu kembali semula ke miqat untuk mengerjakan ihram haji di sana.

Walau bagaimanapun, kembali ke miqat semata-mata untuk mengelakkan pembayaran dam bukanlah sesuatu yang digalakkan kerana ia boleh menyusahkan orang yang melakukannya. Allah s.w.t telah memberi keringanan bagi mereka yang melakukan haji tamattu’ atau qiran dan sudah pasti terdapat hikmah di sebaliknya.

Antara hikmah disebalik perintah membayar dam adalah kesan amal jariah yang lebih meluas iaitu ia bukan sahaja memberi kesan ke atas individu yang mengamalkannya tetapi juga ke atas mereka yang menerima. Disini dapatlah seseorang itu menghargai intipati sebenar Islam iaitu menuju kepada nilai-nilai murni dan unsur-unsur sejagat yang menjadi asas ke arah pembinaan akhlak mulia.

Dengan ini, dapatlah orang Islam memahami konsep ibadah yang sebenarnya, iaitu ia lebih meluas dan bukan setakat ritual sahaja.

Hukum badal haji

S: Apa hukumnya menghajikan orang yang telah meninggal dunia dan dengan wang siapa? 

J: Apabila seseorang itu meninggal dunia harta peninggalannya tergantung kepada lima perkara mengikut turutan. Pertama, digunakan untuk menyelesaikan urusan jenazahnya. Kedua, menyelesaikan gadaian atau harta yang dipinjamnya dari orang lain. Ketiga, membayar hutang si mati samada hutang kepada manusia mahupun hutang kepada Allah SWT. Menunaikan wasiat si mati, jika beliau ada berwasiat. Keempat, membahagikan harta pusaka kepada waris-waris si mati.

Oleh itu jika si mati masih belum menunaikan fardu haji sedangkan ia telahpun mempunyai kemampuan berbuat demikian, maka wajiblah diwakilkan kepada orang lain supaya menunaikan fardu haji bagi pihaknya dengan syarat pihak yang menjadi wakil itu telahpun menunaikan fardu haji.

Antara dalil bagi perkara ini ialah, menurut riwayat Imam Bukhari dan Muslim, seorang perempuan dari Khas'am pernah bertanya Rasulullah s.a.w tentang kedudukan ayahnya yang sudah tua yang tidak mampu lagi menunaikan fardu haji, adakah beliau boleh menunaikan fardu haji bagi pihaknya. Ujar baginda s.a.w. : Ya.

Dalam riwayat yang lain,  seorang perempuan pernah bertanya kepada Rasulullah s.a.w tentang ibunya yang bernazar hendak menunaikan fardu haji tetapi belum sempat ia berbuat demikian, ia sudahpun meninggal, adakah boleh ia menunaikan fardu haji untuk ibunya itu. Rasulullah s.a.w memberi kebenaran kepada perempuan itu berbuat demikian. 

Sehubungan dengan itu anda boleh mengeluarkan wang simpanan arwah untuk digunakan bagi menunaikan fardu haji bagi pihaknya, kerana ibadat haji itu dikira hutang dengan Allah yang perlu dilangsaikan terlebih dahulu, kemudian yang selebihnya hendaklah dibahagikan sebagaimana dalam sistem pembahagian pusaka.

Pergi haji walaupun tidak pernah beri nafkah

S: Sahkah haji suami yang tidak pernah memberi nafkah kepada isteri dan anak-anaknya?

J: Memberi nafkah kepada isteri dan anak adalah wajib. Jika seseorang itu mengerjakan haji tetapi tidak memberi nafkah kepada isteri dan anaknya, dari sudut fiqh hajinya sah jika semua syarat dan rukun telah tertunai. Tetapi dia tetap mendapat dosa kerana mengabaikan tanggung-jawabnya.

Sayugia diingatkan disini bahawa Islam bukanlah sekadar ritual sahaja. Oleh itu, jika seseorang itu melakukan banyak ibadah tetapi telah gagal melaksanakan tanggungjawabnya ke atas keluarganya, maka dia juga telah gagal untuk memahami intipati Islam yang sebenarnya. Maka, cubalah menghargai kedua-dua aspek Islam, iaitu bentuk dan intipati ajaran Islam dan tidak hanya menekankan salah satu daripadanya dan mengabaikan yang lain.

Selaraskan lepas gugurnya Dam

S: Kewajipan membayar dam kerana qiran dan tammatu' itu gugur apabila seseorang itu kembali ke miqatnya untuk mengerjakan ihram haji. Bagaimana ianya boleh diselaraskan?

J: Untuk menyelaraskan amalan haji bukanlah suatu tindakkan yang bijak, ini kerana Allah s.w.t sendiri mengizinkan hamba-Nya melakukan ibadah haji dengan berbagai cara yang diajarkan oleh Rasulullah s.a.w. Jadi terserahlah kepada jemaah tersebut untuk memilih cara mana yang mudah untuk mereka. Memilih untuk membayar Dam atau tidak, mengikut cara perlaksanaan haji yang dipilihnya.

Sayugia diingatkan disini bahawa pembayaran Dam bukanlah sesuatu yang akan mencacatkan haji. Sebaliknya, ia boleh membawa faedah bukan sahaja ke atas individu yang melakukannya tetapi juga ke atas individu yang menerimanya. Di sini dapatlah seseorang itu menghargai intipati sebenar Islam iaitu menuju kepada nilai-nilai murni dan unsur-unsur sejagat yang menjadi asas ke arah pembinaan akhlak mulia.

Dengan ini, dapatlah orang Islam memahami konsep ibadah yang sebenarnya, iaitu ia lebih meluas dan bukan setakat ritual sahaja.

Kami juga mencadangkan agar tuan berhubung langsung dengan sheikh-sheikh haji dalam masalah ini, jika tuan ada mengikuti mana-mana kursus haji yang dikendalikan mereka.

Tamattu'/Qiran mencacatkan?

S: Adakah seseorang yang mengerjakan haji tamattu' ataupun qiran yang dikenakan dam itu mencacatkan hajinya?

J: Seseorang yang dikenakan Dam itu, tidak sama sekali mencacatkan hajinya. Malah, membayar Dam merupakan gantian salah satu cara Allah s.w.t mengajar hambanya memberi makan kepada fakir miskin daripada daging tersebut.

Antara hikmah di sebalik perintah membayar dam adalah kesan amal jariah yang lebih meluas iaitu ia bukan sahaja memberi kesan ke atas individu yang mengamalkannya tetapi juga ke atas mereka yang menerima. Di sini dapatlah seseorang itu menghargai intipati sebenar Islam iaitu menuju kepada nilai-nilai murni dan unsur-unsur sejagat yang menjadi asas ke arah pembinaan akhlak mulia.

Dengan ini, dapatlah orang Islam memahami konsep ibadah yang sebenarnya, iaitu ia lebih meluas dan bukan setakat ritual sahaja.

Waris tidak mampu badal haji

S: Wajibkah pewaris mengerjakan badal haji untuk almarhum yang belum berhaji tetapi pewaris tidak mampu?

J: Jika seseorang itu belum mengerjakan ibadat haji ketika hidup sedangkan ia mampu, maka wajib bagi warisnya mengerjakan badal haji untuknya dari harta pusakanya.

Jika dia belum mengerjakan ibadat haji kerana tidak mampu, maka adalah sunat bagi warisnya mengerjakan badal haji untuknya dari harta pusakanya, atau dari harta si waris itu sendiri.

Jika tiada harta pusaka atau tidak mencukupi, maka tiada halangan bagi warisnya untuk mengeluarkan wang sakunya untuk haji badal si mati. Jika warisnya tidak mahu mengeluarkan wangnya sendiri, maka tidak menjadi satu kesalahan, kerana kewajipan mengerjakan haji adalah atas si mati (jika ia mampu untuk kerjakan sewaktu hidupnya), bukan atas pewarisnya.